A differentiation in software queries that determine whether or not the case of letters is required to match what is stored in the database for words and phrases.
Case sensitivity has pros and cons. When users are searching for information on a website or in a program, case sensitivity can limit the number of results because the users may not know how the words are capitalized. For usernames or passwords where privacy is important case sensitivity is valuable to make the phrases harder to guess by imposters.
Camel Case, Post-hyphen Case